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Q391. How would you prevent session hijacking attacks? 

A. Using biometrics access tokens secures sessions against hijacking 

B. Using non-Internet protocols like http secures sessions against hijacking 

C. Using hardware-based authentication secures sessions against hijacking 

D. Using unpredictable sequence numbers secures sessions against hijacking 

Answer: D

Explanation: Protection of a session needs to focus on the unique session identifier because it is the only thing that distinguishes users. If the session ID is compromised, attackers can impersonate other users on the system. The first thing is to ensure that the sequence of identification numbers issued by the session management system is unpredictable; otherwise, it's trivial to hijack another user's session. Having a large number of possible session IDs (meaning that they should be very long) means that there are a lot more permutations for an attacker to try. 


Q392. Which one of the following is defined as the process of distributing incorrect Internet Protocol (IP) addresses/names with the intent of diverting traffic? 

A. Network aliasing 

B. Domain Name Server (DNS) poisoning 

C. Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 

D. Port scanning 

Answer: B

This reference is close to the one listed DNS poisoning is the correct answer. 

This is how DNS DOS attack can occur. If the actual DNS records are unattainable to the attacker for him to alter in this fashion, which they should be, the attacker can insert this data into the cache of there server instead of replacing the actual records, which is referred to as cache poisoning. 


Q393. John wishes to install a new application onto his Windows 2000 server. 

He wants to ensure that any application he uses has not been Trojaned. 

What can he do to help ensure this? 

A. Compare the file's MD5 signature with the one published on the distribution media 

B. Obtain the application via SSL 

C. Compare the file's virus signature with the one published on the distribution media 

D. Obtain the application from a CD-ROM disc 

Answer: A

Explanation: MD5 was developed by Professor Ronald L. Rivest of MIT. What it does, to quote the executive summary of rfc1321, is: 

[The MD5 algorithm] takes as input a message of arbitrary length and produces as output a 128-bit "fingerprint" or "message digest" of the input. It is conjectured that it is computationally infeasible to produce two messages having the same message digest, or to produce any message having a given prespecified target message digest. The MD5 algorithm is intended for digital signature applications, where a large file must be "compressed" in a secure manner before being encrypted with a private (secret) key under a public-key cryptosystem such as RSA. 

In essence, MD5 is a way to verify data integrity, and is much more reliable than checksum and many other commonly used methods. 


Q394. While reviewing the results of a scan run against a target network you come across the following: 

What was used to obtain this output? 

A. An SNMP Walk 

B. Hping2 diagnosis 

C. A Bo2K System query 

D. Nmap protocol/port scan 

Answer: A

Explanation: The snmpwalk command is designed to perform a sequence of chained GETNEXT requests automatically, rather than having to issue the necessary snmpgetnext requests by hand. The command takes a single OID, and will display a list of all the results which lie within the subtree rooted on this OID. 


Q395. fter studying the following log entries, what is the attacker ultimately trying to achieve as inferred from the log sequence? 

1. mkdir -p /etc/X11/applnk/Internet/.etc 

2. mkdir -p /etc/X11/applnk/Internet/.etcpasswd 

3. touch -acmr /etc/passwd /etc/X11/applnk/Internet/.etcpasswd 

4. touch -acmr /etc /etc/X11/applnk/Internet/.etc 

5. passwd nobody -d 

6. /usr/sbin/adduser dns -d/bin -u 0 -g 0 -s/bin/bash 

7. passwd dns -d 

8. touch -acmr /etc/X11/applnk/Internet/.etcpasswd /etc/passwd 

9. touch -acmr /etc/X11/applnk/Internet/.etc /etc 

A. Change password of user nobody 

B. Extract information from a local directory 

C. Change the files Modification Access Creation times 

D. Download rootkits and passwords into a new directory 

Answer: C


Q396. What type of Virus is shown here? 

A. Cavity Virus 

B. Macro Virus 

C. Boot Sector Virus 

D. Metamorphic Virus 

E. Sparse Infector Virus 

Answer: E


Q397. Gerald is a Certified Ethical Hacker working for a large financial institution in Oklahoma City. Gerald is currently performing an annual security audit of the company's network. One of the company's primary concerns is how the corporate data is transferred back and forth from the banks all over the city to the data warehouse at the company's home office. To see what type of traffic is being passed back and forth and to see how secure that data really is, Gerald uses a session hijacking tool to intercept traffic between a server and a client. Gerald hijacks an HTML session between a client running a web application which connects to a SQL database at the home office. Gerald does not kill the client's session; he simply monitors the traffic that passes between it and the server. 

What type of session attack is Gerald employing here? 

A. He is utilizing a passive network level hijack to see the session traffic used to communicate between the two devices 

B. Gerald is using a passive application level hijack to monitor the client and server traffic 

C. This type of attack would be considered an active application attack since he is actively monitoring the traffic 

D. This type of hijacking attack is called an active network attack 

Answer: C

Explanation: Session Hijacking is an active attack 


Q398. Assuring two systems that are using IPSec to protect traffic over the internet, what type of general attack could compromise the data? 

A. Spoof Attack 

B. Smurf Attack 

C. Man in the Middle Attack 

D. Trojan Horse Attack 

E. Back Orifice Attack 

Answer: DE

Explanation: To compromise the data, the attack would need to be executed before the encryption takes place at either end of the tunnel. Trojan Horse and Back Orifice attacks both allow for potential data manipulation on host computers. In both cases, the data would be compromised either before encryption or after decryption, so IPsec is not preventing the attack. 


Q399. Which Type of scan sends a packets with no flags set ? 

Select the Answer 

A. Open Scan 

B. Null Scan 

C. Xmas Scan 

D. Half-Open Scan 

Answer:

Explanation: 

The types of port connections supported are: 


Q400. Let's imagine three companies (A, B and C), all competing in a challenging global environment. Company A and B are working together in developing a product that will generate a major competitive advantage for them. Company A has a secure DNS server while company B has a DNS server vulnerable to spoofing. With a spoofing attack on the DNS server of company B, company C gains access to outgoing e-mails from company B. How do you prevent DNS spoofing? (Select the Best Answer.) 

A. Install DNS logger and track vulnerable packets 

B. Disable DNS timeouts 

C. Install DNS Anti-spoofing 

D. Disable DNS Zone Transfer 

Answer: C

Explanation: Explantion: Implement DNS Anit-Spoofing measures to prevent DNS Cache Pollution to occur. 



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